Action match is a demanding and dynamic handgun shooting discipline for revolver and self-loading pistol shooters. The discipline was established in 1979 by former Los Angeles Police Department officer John Bianchi. Action match incorporates variations of existing handgun competitions, like IPSC and PPC. The discipline includes four firearm classes and four main courses of fire: practical, barricade, moving target and falling plates. Each course has its own time, distance and scoring conditions. Action match also has a sub-discipline called steel challenge, which caters to both rimfire and centrefire handgun events.